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From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart?


From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart? Who said Ethiopia will be destroyed or Ethiopia will be destroyed? Why did Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, with his tribute to Isaias Afewerki, repeatedly use slogans unless he himself had the intention of destroying Ethiopia? Apart from Eritrean President … Continue reading From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart?

A Rebel leader and one of the most sought after men in the country.Now he sits in a mountain village with his satellite phone and plans how the war will continue for the rebels.


a rebel leader and one of the most sought after men in the country. Now he sits in a mountain village with his satellite phone and plans how the war will continue for the rebels. The war in Tigray County began last November when the armed wing of the TPLF, the Tigray People’s Liberation Front, attacked a federal headquarters in Tigray Province. The … Continue reading A Rebel leader and one of the most sought after men in the country.Now he sits in a mountain village with his satellite phone and plans how the war will continue for the rebels.

Hundreds of thousands of Tigray mothers and children are dying of starvation in Ethiopia. This is an unprecedented massacre in all parts of the country at the behest of dictator Abiy Ahmed.This is how my country became! too bad.! በሃገራችን ኢትዮጵያ በመቶ ሺዎች የሚቆጠሩ የትግራይ እናቶችና ህፃናት በአስከፊ ሰው ሰራሽ ረሀብ እየረገፉ/እየሞቱ ነው፡፡ ይህ በሁሉም የሀገሪቱ ክፍሎች ውስጥ ታይቶ በማይታወቅ መልኩ እየተፈፀመ ያለው አስከፊ ሰቆቃና ረሃብ ግፍ በ አንባገነኑ አብይ አህመድ መራሹ አንባገነን መሪ ፍላጎት የተፈጸመ የዘርማጥፋት ዘመቻ ነው።ሀገሬ እንዲህ ሆነች! ያሳዝናል።!


Hundreds of thousands of Tigray mothers and children are dying of starvation in Ethiopia.  This is an unprecedented massacre in all parts of the country at the behest of dictator Abiy Ahmed.This is how my country became!  too bad.!   በሃገራችን ኢትዮጵያ በመቶ ሺዎች የሚቆጠሩ የትግራይ እናቶችና ህፃናት በአስከፊ ሰው ሰራሽ ረሀብ እየረገፉ/እየሞቱ ነው፡፡ ይህ በሁሉም የሀገሪቱ ክፍሎች ውስጥ ታይቶ በማይታወቅ መልኩ እየተፈፀመ ያለው … Continue reading Hundreds of thousands of Tigray mothers and children are dying of starvation in Ethiopia. This is an unprecedented massacre in all parts of the country at the behest of dictator Abiy Ahmed.This is how my country became! too bad.! በሃገራችን ኢትዮጵያ በመቶ ሺዎች የሚቆጠሩ የትግራይ እናቶችና ህፃናት በአስከፊ ሰው ሰራሽ ረሀብ እየረገፉ/እየሞቱ ነው፡፡ ይህ በሁሉም የሀገሪቱ ክፍሎች ውስጥ ታይቶ በማይታወቅ መልኩ እየተፈፀመ ያለው አስከፊ ሰቆቃና ረሃብ ግፍ በ አንባገነኑ አብይ አህመድ መራሹ አንባገነን መሪ ፍላጎት የተፈጸመ የዘርማጥፋት ዘመቻ ነው።ሀገሬ እንዲህ ሆነች! ያሳዝናል።!

You control the little person by law. The adult, however, is controlled by his own actions


You control the little person by law. The adult, however, is controlled by his own actions.Law is a good system.Enough prisons to enforce unpopular laws; There are not enough police forces and not enough courts. ትንሹን ሰው በህግ ትቆጣጠረዋለህ፡፡ ትልቅ ሰው ግን ሰናይ ምግባሩ ራሱ ይቆጣጠረዋል፡፡ሕግ ማለት መልካም ስርዓት ነው፡፡ሕዝብ ያልደገፈውን ህግ ለማስፈጸም በቂ እስር ቤት፤ በቂ የፖሊስ ኃይልና በቂ ፍርድ ቤት አይገኝም፡፡

Ibu lewat!** Ada hari-hari yang sepertinya berlalu! Tapi kami telah melihat mereka lulus! Kita mengira ada malam dan siang, tetapi tidak ada siang dan malam yang tidak datang. Tapi ada prosesnya! Hal Ethiopia adalah tangisan ibu-ibu ini: Air mata akan mengalir! Hari ini berakhir untuk Ethiopia! Tidak diingat tapi hanya tertawa! **Luka dan bekas luka tidak sama sakitnya! Bekas Luka Bisa Mengingatkan Anda! Tapi lukanya masih sakit! Tapi bekas luka yang ditinggalkan oleh luka ini menyakitkan, tapi masih ada. Mari kita berpikir seperti manusia hari ini! Sebagai manusia, mari kita menangis untuk orang Etiopia! Mari kita singkirkan luka ini hari ini agar tidak menjadi bekas luka!.*Tesfish from Toronto!


From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart?


From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart? Who said Ethiopia will be destroyed or Ethiopia will be destroyed? Why did Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, with his tribute to Isaias Afewerki, repeatedly use slogans unless he himself had the intention of destroying Ethiopia? Apart from Eritrean President … Continue reading From the day Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed came to power, the slogan, politics or patriotism that Ethiopia has been saying will not fall apart?

The 3 Major Causes of Divorce: 1. Laziness:2. Lack of Communication Skills:3. High Expectations:


الأسباب الرئيسية 3 الطلاق: الكسل:الناس لا يريدون العمل في الزواج. هناك اعتقاد مضلل بأن الزواج سوف تجعلنا سعداء. كما لو كان الزواج كيان منفصل، شيء خارج أنفسنا من شأنها أن البقاء على قيد الحياة وتزدهر مع المدخلات قليلا من الزوج والزوجة.المرأة خطة حفلات الزفاف ضخمة؛ رمي دش الزفاف والذهاب إلى الزواج ليس لديهم أي فكرة ما هو الزواج. الرجال تجد امرأة لرعاية، والعشرين … Continue reading The 3 Major Causes of Divorce: 1. Laziness:2. Lack of Communication Skills:3. High Expectations:

በሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግስት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ እና በኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ መካከል የምርጫ ጉዳይን አስመልክቶ የጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ሰበር ሰሚ ችሎት በሰ/መ/ቁ 207036 የሰጠው ውሳኔየሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግሥት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ከክልሉ ውጭ የሚኖር የሐረሪ ሕዝብ ከዚህ ቀደም እንደነበሩት አምስት አገራዊ ምርጫዎች በ6ኛው አገራዊ ምርጫም ከክልሉ ዉጭ ያሉ የብሔረሰቡ አባላት ለሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ሊመርጡ ይገባል በሚል ለኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ አቤቱታ ያቀረበ ቢሆንም የኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ ጉዳዩን ማስተናገድ እንደማይቻል ውሳኔ ሰጥቷል፡፡የሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግሥት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ምርጫ ቦርዱ የሰጠውን ውሳኔ በመቃወም የይግባኝ ቅሬታውን ለፌደራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎት አቅርቧል፡፡ የፍርድ ቤቱ ይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎት በመ/ቁ 205809 ሚያዚያ 19 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም በዋለው ችሎት የምርጫ ቦርድ በጉዳዩ ላይ የሰጠውን ውሳኔ ውድቅ በማድረግ ቦርዱ ከክልሉ ውጪ ያሉ ሐረሪዎች የመምረጥ መብትን አስቀድሞ በተዘረጋው ስርዓት መሰረት ተግባራዊ እንዲያደርግ ወስኗል፡፡በዚህ ውሳኔ ቅር የተሰኘው ብሔራዊ ምርጫ ቦርድ ይግባኝ ችሎቱ የሰጠው ውሳኔ መሠረታዊ የሕግ ስህተት አለበት በማለት ጉዳዩን ለፌደራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ሰበር ሰሚ ችሎት ያቀረበ ቢሆንም የሰበር አቤቱታውን የተመለከተው የፍርድ ቤቱ ሰበር ችሎት በሰ/መ/ቁ 207036 ግንቦት 19 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም ጉዳዩን በጥልቀት ከመረመረ በኋላ በሰጠው ውሳኔ የይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎቱ የሰጠውን ወሳኔ አጽንቷል፡፡


Supreme Court Cassation Hearing Case No. 207036 on Election Issue between the Harari National Regional State Government and the Electoral Board of Ethiopia Harari National Regional State Harari National Assembly The Ethiopian Electoral Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) has ruled that the Harari National Assembly, which has been living outside the region, has appealed to the Electoral Board of Ethiopia (NEBE).The Harari People’s State … Continue reading በሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግስት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ እና በኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ መካከል የምርጫ ጉዳይን አስመልክቶ የጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ሰበር ሰሚ ችሎት በሰ/መ/ቁ 207036 የሰጠው ውሳኔየሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግሥት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ከክልሉ ውጭ የሚኖር የሐረሪ ሕዝብ ከዚህ ቀደም እንደነበሩት አምስት አገራዊ ምርጫዎች በ6ኛው አገራዊ ምርጫም ከክልሉ ዉጭ ያሉ የብሔረሰቡ አባላት ለሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ሊመርጡ ይገባል በሚል ለኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ አቤቱታ ያቀረበ ቢሆንም የኢትዮጵያ ምርጫ ቦርድ ጉዳዩን ማስተናገድ እንደማይቻል ውሳኔ ሰጥቷል፡፡የሀረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል መንግሥት የሐረሪ ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ ምርጫ ቦርዱ የሰጠውን ውሳኔ በመቃወም የይግባኝ ቅሬታውን ለፌደራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎት አቅርቧል፡፡ የፍርድ ቤቱ ይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎት በመ/ቁ 205809 ሚያዚያ 19 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም በዋለው ችሎት የምርጫ ቦርድ በጉዳዩ ላይ የሰጠውን ውሳኔ ውድቅ በማድረግ ቦርዱ ከክልሉ ውጪ ያሉ ሐረሪዎች የመምረጥ መብትን አስቀድሞ በተዘረጋው ስርዓት መሰረት ተግባራዊ እንዲያደርግ ወስኗል፡፡በዚህ ውሳኔ ቅር የተሰኘው ብሔራዊ ምርጫ ቦርድ ይግባኝ ችሎቱ የሰጠው ውሳኔ መሠረታዊ የሕግ ስህተት አለበት በማለት ጉዳዩን ለፌደራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ሰበር ሰሚ ችሎት ያቀረበ ቢሆንም የሰበር አቤቱታውን የተመለከተው የፍርድ ቤቱ ሰበር ችሎት በሰ/መ/ቁ 207036 ግንቦት 19 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም ጉዳዩን በጥልቀት ከመረመረ በኋላ በሰጠው ውሳኔ የይግባኝ ሰሚ ችሎቱ የሰጠውን ወሳኔ አጽንቷል፡፡

The solution is to face the bitter truth!………………………………………….. ..It is the historic responsibility of this generation to abandon the “generation” that claims to be dead if we do not burn the American flag. To do this, we must first evict all forces that violated Ethiopia’s sovereignty and ensure that we do not need any interference. Next you need to look inside and close your home in a polite manner. The world is solving the problem through dialogue, negotiation, and acceptance, not by making excuses and by fighting.Failure to do so is a second death, especially for my generation!


Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed ConflictsThe seven fundamental rules which are the basis of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols:


Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed ConflictsThe seven fundamental rules which are the basis of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols: 1 – Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated … Continue reading Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed ConflictsThe seven fundamental rules which are the basis of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols:

የተባበሩት መንግስት


የተዋሃዱ ግዛቶች ሴናትዋርጎ ኦ.ሲ 261029 ኤፕሪል 2021 አምባሳደር ጄፍሪ ፌልማንአሜሪካ ለአፍሪካ ቀንድ ልዩ መልዕክተኛየዩናይትድ ስቴትስ የውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስቴር 2201 C St NWዋሽንግተን ዲሲ 20520አምባሳደር ፌልማን ለአፍሪካ ቀንድ የአሜሪካ የስፔስ መልዕክተኛ ሆነው በመሾምዎ እንኳን ደስ አላችሁ ፡፡ ብዙ ውስብስብ ችግሮች ያጋጠሙት ወሳኝ ወሳኝ ክልል ነው ፡፡ የእርስዎ ተሞክሮ እና አመራር ዩናይትድ ስቴትስ በስትራቴጂክ ፣ በተቀናጀ ሁኔታ ምላሽ እንድትሰጥ ያስችላታል ፡፡ወደ አከባቢው ለመጓዝ ሲዘጋጁ ግምት … Continue reading የተባበሩት መንግስት

❗️ከወደ አሜሪካን ሃገር የሰማሁት ጉድ❗️ ባልና ሚስት የጋራ የባንክ ሂሳብ ላይ የሁለታቸውንም ወርሀዊ ደሞዝ ያጠራቅማሉ። እናም የሁለቱም ወርሃዊ ደሞዝ በጋራ በቁጠባ ሂሳብ ላይ ይጣላል። እናም ባል ገንዘብ ሲፈልግ የፈለገውን የገንዘብ መጠን ወጪ ማድረግ ይችላል። ሚስት ደግሞም ከወርሃዊ ደሞዟ ግማሽ የ15 ቀናት ደሞዟን ከጋራ የባንክ ቁጠባ ሂሳብ አውጥታ ለራሷ ጥቅም የማዋል መብት የላትም። ይህ ማለትም ለምሳሌ 5000 US ዶላር ወርሃዊ ደሞዟ ከሆነ ,2500 US ዶላር አውጥታ በገዛ ፍቃዷ ለቤተሰቦቿ መስጠት ,ወይም ለእራሷ ጥቅም ማዋል አትችልም።የ ኢፍትሃዊነት መገለጫ⁉️ ወይስ የምን __ጥግ እንበለው⁉️


Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict: Six months on and no end in sightTamrat Kidanu, 66-year-old survivor of a massacre at Dengolat last November that Amnesty International says was carried out by Eritrean troopsIt has been six months since Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed sent troops into Tigray for a military campaign he vowed would be swift and targeted.But violence rumbles on, and reports continue to emerge of massacres, rape and widespread hunger.How did we get here? -Scroll to continue with contentAd


አቶ ልደቱ አያሌውን ከሃገር ወጥቶ እንዲታከሙ የመፍቀድ ግዴታ አለበት። የፌዴራል የመጀመሪያ ደረጃ ፍርድ አራዳ የጸረ ሽብር ወንጀል ችሎት በዛሬው እለት የሰጠው ውሳኔ ተፈጻሚ ሆኖ አቶ ልደቱ አያሌውን ይቅርታ በመጠየቅ የችሎቱን ትዕዛዝ እንዲፈጽሙ እንመኛለን።


መንግስት ፖለቲከኞችን ባልፈጸሙት ወንጀል አሸባሪ ነው ሃገርን አውኳል , ወይም አተራምሷል በማለት በየግዜው ዜጎች በሆኑት ፖለቲከኞች ላይ በሀሰተኛ ክስ የማስተጓገል,የማደናቀፍ,እንዲሁም በፖለቲከኞች ላይ የስነልቦና ጫና መፍጠር በዚህ በቅርብ ዘመናት ዋንኛው የመንግሥት ተግባር መሆኑ ይታወቃል። እደግመዋለሁ አዎን የትግራይን ጦርነት የንጹሃንን ትግራይን የህዝብ እልቂት, የሴቶችን መደፈር,ትክክል አይደለም ብሎ መቃወም ወንጀለኛ አያስብልም። የዜጎችን መብት መጣስ/የዜጎችን መብት መንፈግ ዋንኛው የመንግሥት መደበኛ የስራ አፈጻጸም ሆኗል። መንግስት የዜጎችን መብት እየነፈገ … Continue reading አቶ ልደቱ አያሌውን ከሃገር ወጥቶ እንዲታከሙ የመፍቀድ ግዴታ አለበት። የፌዴራል የመጀመሪያ ደረጃ ፍርድ አራዳ የጸረ ሽብር ወንጀል ችሎት በዛሬው እለት የሰጠው ውሳኔ ተፈጻሚ ሆኖ አቶ ልደቱ አያሌውን ይቅርታ በመጠየቅ የችሎቱን ትዕዛዝ እንዲፈጽሙ እንመኛለን።

YE ABESHA MEDHANIT Facebook page. I listened to a woman who is an activist and she is an amazing woman. I couldn’t help but admire her. This brilliant, beautiful and good activist is brilliant and her thinking as a girl is amazing. The sincerity of her heart is evident. This beautiful, decent woman is sharing all her thoughts and knowledge with us in a very balanced and unbiased way. It is incumbent upon all of us to encourage and support such courageous and positive women as role models for other women.


YE ABESHA MEDHANIT Facebook page. I listened to a woman who is an activist and she is an amazing woman. I couldn’t help but admire her. This brilliant, beautiful and good activist is brilliant and her thinking as a girl is amazing. The sincerity of her heart is evident. This beautiful, decent woman is sharing all her thoughts and knowledge with us in … Continue reading YE ABESHA MEDHANIT Facebook page. I listened to a woman who is an activist and she is an amazing woman. I couldn’t help but admire her. This brilliant, beautiful and good activist is brilliant and her thinking as a girl is amazing. The sincerity of her heart is evident. This beautiful, decent woman is sharing all her thoughts and knowledge with us in a very balanced and unbiased way. It is incumbent upon all of us to encourage and support such courageous and positive women as role models for other women.

Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts


Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts The seven fundamental rules which are the basis of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols: 1 – Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and … Continue reading Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts

=======በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ=========


በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ =======.   ለንቃተ ህግ ትምህርት .====== የወንጀል ህግ ዋና አላማ የህዝብን ሰላም እና ደህንነት ማስጠበቅ ነው፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰዎች የእለት ተእለት ኑሯቸውን በሚመሩበት ሂደት ውስጥ ህገመንግስታዊ መብቶቻቸው ሊጠበቁላቸው የሚገባ መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ እነሱም የሌላውን ሰው መብት የማክበር እና ከመጣስ የመቆጠብ ግዴታ አለባቸው፡፡ይሁንና ይህን ግዴታቸውን ቸል በማለት የሌላውን ሰው መብት የሚጥሱ ከሆነ የወንጀል፣ ፍትሀብሄራዊ እንዲሁም አስተዳደራየአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም  የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም ተደጋግሞ እንደተገለፀው የመንግስት ስልጣን በወርድም በቁመትም እየሰፋ በመጣ ቁጥር ለዜጐች መብትና ነፃነት ፀር ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የስልጣንን አስፈላጊነት አምኖ ተቀብሎታል፡፡ ውጤታማ አስተዳደር እንዲሁም ቀልጣፋ የአገልግሎት አቅርቦት እንዲኖር የሚያስር ሳይሆን የሚፈታ ስልጣን ያስፈልጋል፡፡ ሆኖም ከህግና ከህገ መንግስት የሚያፈነግጥ ስልጣን ከጥቅሙ ጉዳቱ ያመዝናል፡፡ የበዘፈቀደ ድርጊት፣ ‘እንደፈለግኩኝ እሆናለው እፈልጣለው እቆርጣለው!’ የሚል አካሄድ አቅመ ቢስ የሆነውን ዜጋ የመኖር፣ በነፃነት የመንቀሳቀስ፣ የመናገር፣ ሀሳብን የመግለፅና ንብረት የማፍራት መሰረታዊ መብት አለገደብ ይሸረሽራል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስጠበቅ ረገድ ያለው ሚና የሁለቱን ትስስር በሚገባ ያሳየናል፡፡ ህጉ በሰብዓዊ መብት አጠባበቅና አፈፃፀም ላይ ያለውን አዎንታዊ ተፅእኖ በሚገባ ለመረዳት ከሰብዓዊ መብቶች አተገባበር አንፃር የመንግስትን ግዴታ መተንተኑ አግባብነት ይኖረዋል፡፡ እነዚህም ሚናዎች (ግዴታዎች) የማክበር (respect) የማስከበር (protect) እንዲሁም የመፈጸምና የማስፈፀም (enforcement) ናቸው፡፡ በመጀመሪያው መብቶችን የማክበር የመንግስት ሚና ዜጐች ነፃ ሆነው መብታቸውን ሲጠቀሙ ከየትኛውም የመንግስት አካል የሚመጣ ጣልቃ ገብነትን ይገድባል፡፡ በተለይም መሰረታዊ በሚባሉት በህይወት የመኖር፣ የመፃፍ፣ የመናገር፤ የፈለጉትን ሀይማኖት የመከተል፤ በነፃነት የመዘዋወርና ንብረት የማፍራት መብቶችና ነፃነቶች በተግባር የሚረጋገጡት መንግስት እጁን ሲሰበስብ ነው፡፡ እነዚህ መብቶች በመንግስት በተለይ በስራ አስፈፃሚውና በስሩ ባሉት የአስተዳደር ተቋማት ውሳኔ፤ ትዕዛዝ፤ ደንብና መመሪያ አማካይነት አደጋ ላይ ሊወድቁ ይችላሉ፡፡ ህገ መንግስቱ የበላይ ህግ እንደመሆኑ ይህን የሚቃረን ህግ፣ ውሳኔና አሰራር ሁሉ ተፈፃሚነት አይኖረውም፡፡ ይህን መሰሉ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ አይወድቅም፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ብቻ የሚመስል ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ማእቀፍ የሚሸፈንበት አጋጣሚ ሰፊ ነው፡፡ በአንድ የአስተዳደር ተቋም የወጣ መመሪያ በህግ አውጭው ከተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን በማለፍ የዜጐችን ሰብዓዊ መብት የሚገድብ ሆኖ ከተገኘ በውስጡ የህገ መንግስታዊነት (constitutionality) ጥያቄ ያዘለ ቢሆንም በዋናነት ግን የአስተዳደር ህግ ሊመልሰው የሚገባ የህጋዊነት (legality) ጥያቄ ነው፡፡ ልዩነታቸውን የበለጠ መረዳት እንዲያስችልን የሚከተለውን የድሮው የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር የአሁኑ የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን መመሪያ እንመልከት፡፡ ማንኛውም የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ስልፍና የስራ ማቆም አድማ ማድረግ አይችልም፡፡ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ መብት በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት ለማንኛውም ሰው የተረጋገጠ መብት ነው፡፡ መብቱን የሚያጎናጽፈው የአንቀጽ 30 ንዑስ ቁጥር 1 እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡ ማንኛውም ሰው ከሌሎች ጋር በመሆን መሳሪያ ሳይዝ በሰላም የመሰብሰብ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ ነፃነትና አቤቱታ የማቅረብ መብት አለው፡፡ አንድ መመሪያ በስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ሲወጣ ከህግ አውጭው በግልጽ የተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን (Delegation) ሊኖር ይገባል፡፡ መመሪያው የውክልና ስልጣኑን ገደብ ካለፈ ከስልጣን በላይ (Ulta vires) ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም በህግ ፊት ዋጋ አልባ (null and void) ነው፡፡ የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ይህን መመሪያ ሲያወጣ የስልጣን ምንጩን የጉምሩክ ባለስልጣንን ለማቋቋምና አስራሩን ለመወሰን የወጣው አዋጅ ቁ. 368/1995 አንቀጽ 8 (2) (ሐ) እንደሆነ ይጠቅሳል፡፡ ይህ የተጠቀሰው የህግ ድንጋጌ እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡ የጉምሩክ ህግ እንዲያስከብር ከፌደራል ፖሊስ ኮሚሽን የተመደበን የፖሊስ ኃይል ሚኒስቴሩ የፌደራል ፖሊስ አዋጅን ተከትሎ በሚያወጣው መመሪያ መሰረት በስራ ያሰማራል፡፡ ያስተዳድራል፡፡ ጥፋት ሲገኝም ያሰናብታል፡፡ ይህ አንቀጽ የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ እንዳያደርግ በመመሪያ እንዲከለክል ለገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ስልጣን አይሰጥም፡፡ ከተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ግልፅ ስልጣን ባልተሰጠበት ሁኔታ የወጣው ይህ መመሪያ ህጋዊነት ሆነ ተፈፃሚነት የለውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ይህን መሰል መመሪያዎች በዘፈቀደ እየወጡ የዜጐችን መብትና ነፃነት እንዳይጥሱ በተለያዩ መንገዶች በመቆጣጠር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብት የማክበር ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ያደርጋል፡፡ የመንግስት የማስፈፀም ኃላፊነት አብዛኛውን ጊዜ ከማህበራዊ፤ ኢኮኖሚያዊና ባህላዊ መብቶች ጋር በቀጥታ ተያይዞ ይነሳል፡፡ መንግስት በዜጐች መብት ላይ ጣልቃ አለመግባቱ ወይም እጁን መሰብሰቡ ብቻ አይበቃም፡፡ ለዜጋው መሰረታዊ አገልግሎቶችን ማለትም ጤና፣ መብራት፣ ውሃ፣ መንገድ ወዘተ… ካላቀረበ ነፃ መሆን በራሱ ፋይዳ የለውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት ትሰስር ከመንግስት የማስከበር ግዴታ አንጻርም ሊቃኝ ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስከበር ኃላፊነቱ መብት እንዳይጣስ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶች በህግ እና በተቋማዊ አደረጃጀት የማጠናከር፣ በመብት መጣስ ጉዳት ለደረሰበት ዜጋ ፈጣን ፍትህ የሚያገኝበትን ስርዓት መዘርጋት አለበት ማለት ነው፡፡ በአጭር አገላለጽ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች እንዲከበሩ መንግስት የዳበረ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ስርዓት መቅረጽ፣ መትከልና ማጐልበት ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ ዊ እርምጃ ሊወሰድባቸው የተገባ ስለመሆኑ  በተለያዩ ህጎቻችን ላይ መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ እነኚ እርምጃዎች እንደየጉዳዮቹ ባህሪ በፍርድ ቤት ወይም በአስተዳደራዊ ወይም አስፈጻሚ  ተቋማት ሊወሰዱ የሚችሉ ናቸው፡፡ የወንጀል ተጠያቂነትን በተመለከተ ፍ/ቤቶች በዋናናት እና በብቸኝነት ፍርድ የመስጠት ስልጣን ያላቸው ስለመሆኑ በህገመንግስቱ አንቀጽ 79(1)ስር ተቀምጦ የሚገኘው ድንጋጌ ያመላክተናል፡፡ በመሆኑም ፍ/ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስራቸውን በማከናወን ሂደት ውስጥ የሚቀርቡላቸውን ክሶች በመቀበል ማስተናግድ እና ፍትሃዊ እና ተገቢውን ፍርድ መስጠት የሚችሉት ጉዳዩን ለማረጋገጥ የሚችል በቂ ማስረጃ ሲገኝ ነው፡፡በወንጀል ጉዳይ ፍርድ ቤቶች ጉዳዩን ከማስተናገዳቸው በፊት ቅድሚያ ሊከናወኑ የሚገባቸው ዋና ዋና ጉዳዮች አሉ፡፡ እነኚህም የወንጀል ምርመራ እና ክስ አመሰራረት ሂደቶች  ናቸው፡፡ በመሆኑም ፖሊስ ከዐቃቤ ህግ ጋር በጋራ በመሆን  በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ አንድን ድርጊት ፈጽሟል በሚል የተጠረጠረን ሰው ለፈጸመው ወንጀል እንዲቀጣ በማድረግ እራሱን አድራጊውንም ሆነ መሰል ተግባራትን የሚፈጽሙ ሰዎችን ለማስተማር ይቻል ዘንድ ፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርቡ ከሆነ ተከሳሽን ጥፋተኛ ሊያስብሉ የሚችሉ ማስረጃዎችን በሚገባ ማሰባሰብ እና የምርመራ መዝገብ ማደራጀት አለበት፡፡ ቀላል የማይባል ቁጥር ያለው የህብረተሰቡ ክፍል በዚህ ረገድ ካለው የግንዛቤ ማጣት እና ለህግ ተገዢ ለመሆን ፍቃደኛ ካለመሆን ጋር ተያይዞ በምርመራ ወቅት ፖሊስ በማስረጃነት የሚፈልጋቸው መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ካለመግለጽ አንስቶ እስከ መሰወር የሚደርስ ተግባራት ሲፈጽሙ እናስተውላለን፡፡ ይሁንና የምርመራ ስራ ያለህዝብ ተሳትፎ እና ትብብር ውጤታማ ሊሆን የማይችል በመሆኑ ህዝብ የመንግስት አይን በመሆን ህገ ወጥ ተግባራትን ከማጋለጥ አንስቶ መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ለመርማሪው አካል በመስጠት የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ ስርዓቱን በባለቤትነት ስሜት መደገፍ መቻል አለበት፡፡ በዚህ ጽሁፍም ፖሊስ በሚያከናውነው የወንጀል ምርመራ ስራ ውስጥ ማስረጃዎችን እንዴት ሊያሰባስብ እና ስለሚቀርቡበት እንደሚገባ፣የማስረጃዎችን ምንነት እና አስፈላጊነት፣ ስለ ማስረጃዎች ተቀባይነት፣ ህዝቡ መጫወት ስለሚገባው ሚና እና ስለ ማስረጃ ጽንሰ ሀሳብ ዋና ዋና ነጥቦችን ለመዳሰስ ጥረት ይደረጋል፡፡    1.የወንጀል ማስረጃ ምንነት ህጎቻችን ማስረጃን የሚመለከቱ አያሌ ድንጋጌዎችን በውስጣቸው የያዙ ቢሆንም ማስረጃን ግልጽ ሊያደርግ የሚችል ትርጉም ሰጥተውት አንመለከትም፡፡በመሆኑም የማስረጃን ምንነትን ለመረዳት  የተለያዩ የህግ ሊቆች ለቃሉ የሰጡትን ትርጉም ማየቱ ተገቢ ነው የሚሆነው፡፡ ሪቻርድ ሜይ የተባለው የህግ ጸሀፍት ለማስረጃ በሰጠው ትርጉም ማንኛውንም ፍሬ ነገር ወይም መደምደሚያን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል የሚጠቅም መረጃ ነው፡፡በክስ ማሰማት ሂደትም በጭብጥ የተያዙ ፍሬ ነገሮችን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል በሚል የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ በሌላ በኩል ማስረጃን ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም በጭብጥነት የተያዘን ጉዳይ መኖር አለመኖርን ውሳኔ በተመለከተ ውሳኔ ለሚሰጠው የዳኝነት አካል ለማሳመን በማሰብ የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው በሚል ሊተረጎምም ይችላል፡፡ ከነኚህ ትርጉሞች የምንረዳው ማስረጃ የአንድን ነገር መፈጸም፣ወይም መፈጸም ግዴታ ሆኖ እያለ ባለመፈጸም ህግን መተላለፍ በወ/ል የሚያስጠይቅ በሆነ ጊዜ ድርጊቶቹ እውነት የተፈጸሙ መሆኑን ጉዳዩ ለሚቀርብለት ፍርድ ቤት ለማሳመን የሚቀርቡ ሲሆን በሌላ በኩል ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ በተመለከተ ያለመፈጸሙን ለፍርድ ቤቱ በማረጋገጥ ለማስተባበል የሚያቀርባቸው መረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ለምሳሌ በስርቆት ወንጀል የተከሰሰ ሰው ድርጊቱን በእርግጥም ፈጽሞታል ወይስ አልፈጸመውም የሚለውን በፍርድ ቤት የሚያዝ ጭብጥ ለማስረዳት ማስረጃዎች ወሳኝ ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም ድርጊቱን መፈጸሙን የሚያረጋግጡ የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን ማቅረብ የግድ ይሆናል ማለት ነው፡፡ተከሳሽም ቢሆን ድርጊቱን ያልፈጸመ መሆኑን የሚያስረዱለትን የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን የማቅረብ እና የማሰማት መብት አለው፡፡በመሆኑም በቀጣይ ርዕስ በጥልቀት የምንመለከተው መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ ግለሰቡ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም የተመለከተ ሰው የሚሰጠው የምስክርነት ቃል፣ በፈጸመው መንጀል ምክንያት እጁ የገባው የወንጀል ፍሬ(ስልክ፣ ገንዘብ፣ አልባሳት ወ.ዘ.ተ) እነኚ ማስረጃች እንደየባህርያቸው በተለያዩ መንገዶች የሚርቡ ሲሆን የሰው የምስክርነት ቃል ከሆነ ምስክሩን አቅርቦ በማሰማት፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከሆነ ሰነዱን አቅርቦ ይዘቱን በማሳየት እንዲሁም በኤግዚሂቢትነት የሚቀርብ ዕቃ ከሆነ ይህንኑ ዕቃ በማቅረብ ፍርድ ቤቱ ግንዛቤ እንዲወስድ በማድረግ በጭብትነት የተያዘውን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ለማስረዳት እና የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይቻላል፡፡ ምስክሮቹ የሰጡት ወይም የሚሰጡት ቃል፣ ከቀረበው ሰነድ ላይ ወይም ዕቃ ላይ የተወሰደው ግንዛቤ ወይም መረዳት ማስረጃ ስንለው እነኚህኑ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት ለማቅረብ የተጠቀምንባቸው ማለትም ምስክሩ፣ ሰነዱ እና ዕቃው ማስረጃን የማቅረቢያ ዘዴ በማለት ለያይተን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ በሌላ በኩል ከላይ ከጠቀስነው ዝርዝር ሀሳብ አንጻር በመረጃ እና በማስረጃ መካከል ያለ ልዩነት በውል መታወቅ አለበት፡፡ኣብዛኛው የማህበረሰብ ክፍል በሁለቱ ሀረጎች መካከል ያለውን ልዩነት በውል ለይቶ አያውቀውም፡፡ ማስረጃዎች ሁሉ መረጃዎች ሲሆኑ መረጃዎች ሁሉ ግን ማስረጃ ሊሆኑ አይችሉም፡፡ማስረጃ ማለት ሰዎች ከጥናት፣ ከንባብ፣ ከሰዎች ጋር ከሚደረግ ግንኙነት፣ ቀድሞ ከነበረ እውነታ ወይም ፍሬ ነገር እና በተግባር ከተገኘ ልምድ የሚመነጭ የሰዎች እውቀት ማለት ነው፡፡እነኚ እውቀቶች ሁሉ መረጃ እንጂ ማስረጃ ላይሆኑ ይችላሉ፡፡ የማስረጃን ባህሪ ከላይ ተመልክተና::በመሆኑም መረጃዎችን በማስረጃ ደረጃ እንዲገኙ እና ከላይ ለተጠቀሰው አላማ ጥቅም ላይ ለማዋል መረጃዎቹ ተጠባጭ ወደሆነ አስረጂነት ደረጃ ከፍ እንዲሉ ለማስቻል የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ የሚጨጫወተው ሚና ጉልህ ነው ማለት ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ አቶ ለማ ከዚህ ቀደም ሰዎችን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ወደ አረብ ሀገር ሲልክ እሰማለው ወይም ይልካ ሲባል እሰማለው የሚለውን የአቶ ምናሴን ንግግር ብንመለከት ግለሰቡ አቶ ለማ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ የተመለከቱ ሳይሆን  ከተለያዩ ምንጮች የሰሙትን እውቀታቸውን ነው የገለጹት፡፡በመሆኑም ግለሰቡ ወ/ሉን ከመፈጸሙ በፊት ያለው ባህሪ ስለፈጸመው ወንጀል ማስረጃ ሊሆን አይችልም፡፡ይህ ማለት ግን አይጠቅምም ማለት አይደለም፡፡ ከግለሰቡ የተገኘው መረጃ በምርመራ ሂደት የሚበለጽግ ከሆነ በማስረጃነት ሊጠቅም  ይችላል፡፡ምክንያቱም ፖሊስ ከዚህ መረጃ በመነሳት በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ ድርጊቱን የፈጸመው የተባለው ሰው ስለመሆኑ የሚያስረዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃዎችን እንዲሰበስብ ይረዱታል፡፡ ማስረጃ ተፈጸመ የተባለን ወንጀል አፈጻጸም እና መችየት፣ የፈጻሚን ማንነት፣ በወንጀል ተግባሩ የተገኘው ጥቅም እና የደረሰን ጉዳት እና የመሳሰሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ለማረጋገጥ የምንጠቀምበት መረጃ ነው፡፡     2.የማስረጃ አስፈላጊነት ማንኛውም ከሳሽ ላቀረበው ክስ ፍ/ቤት ፍትሃዊ ውሳኔ እንዲሰጥለት እና እንደ ክሱ ጥፋተኛ ይልለት ዘንድ ማስረጃዎችን በማሰማት ማሳመን አለበት፡፡ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ ለማስተባበል እና ፍርድ ቤት በነጻ እንዲያሰናብተው(ተከላከል ከተባለ በኋላ) ማስረጃዎችን አቅርቦ ማሰማት እና ማስረዳት(ማሳመን)አለበት፡፡እንዲሁም በቀረበበት ክስ ላይ የመጀመርያ መቃወሚያ ያለው እንደሆነ መቃወሚያውን የሚያረጋግጡለትን ማስረጃዎች አቅርቦ ወይም አስቀርቦ ማስረዳት ይችላል፡፡የቅጣት ማቅለያ ምክንያቶችንም በተመሳሳይ በማቅረብ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ፍርድ ቤቶችም የሚሰጡት የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ ተከራካሪ ወገኖች ከሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች አንጻር የሚወስዱትን ግምት መሰረት በማድረግ ነው፡፡በመሆኑም ክስ ከመመስረቱ በፊት በቂ እና ፍርድ ቤትን ሊያሳምን የሚችል ማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ ተገቢ እና ወሳኝ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡በተለይም በወንጀል ጉዳይ ክስ የሚመሰርተው ዐቃቤ ህግ እንደመሆኑ መጠን ክስ ከመመስረቱ እና ወደ ፍርድ ቤት ከመላኩ በፊት በቂ እና ክስን ለመመስረት የሚያስችል ማስረጃ የተሰበሰበ መሆኑን ማረጋገጥ አለበት፡፡በዚህ መንገድ የተሰበሰበው ማስረጃ በፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርብ ከሆነ በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሱት ፍሬ ነገሮች ስለመኖራቸው ማሳየት የሚቻልበት እድል ሰፊ ይሆናል፡፡ከዚህ የምንረዳው አቃቤ ህግ ክስ በሚመሰርትበትም ሆነ ፍርድ ቤቶች በቀረበላቸው ክስ ላይ ግራ ቀኙን አከራክረው እና መርምረው ውሳኔ ለመስጠት ይችሉ ዘንድ ማስረጃ የሚጫወተው ሚና የማይተካ መሆኑን ነው፡፡ የትኛውም አይነት የወንጀል ድርጊት መፈጸሙ ብቻውን ቅጣትን ለመጣል በቂ አይደልም፡፡ይልቁንም በድርጊቱ ውስጡ ያሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ሊያስረዳ የሚችል ከድርጊቱ ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ተያያዥነት ያለው፣ በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ እና ተጨባጭነት ያለው በቂ ማስረጃ ሊኖር የተገባ ነው፡፡ይህ ከሆነ የወንጀል ተግባራትን የፈጸሙ ሰዎች ከተጠያቂነት እንዳይድኑ ከተጠያቂነት ነጻ ሊሆኑ የሚገባቸው ሰዎች ነጻ መሆናቸው እንዲረጋገጥላቸው ማስረጃ ቁልፍ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡ 3.የማስረጃ አይነት በወንጀል ጉዳይ የሚሰበሰቡ ማስረጃዎች በጭብጥነት የተያዘ ፍሬ ነገርን ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር እና ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከተያዘለት አላማ አንጻር በሚል በሁለት ዋና ዋና ባህርያት ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ ማስረጃዎች ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኝነት ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር ማስረጃዎችና በሶስት ዋና ዋና ዘርፎች ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡እነኚህም የምስክርነት ማስረጃ፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ እና ገላጭ ማስረጃ ናቸው፡፡ ሀ.የምስክርነት ማስረጃ (testimonial evidence) ይህ አይነቱ ማስረጃ ሰዎች የአንድን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ወይም አለመኖር ወይም የአንድን ድርጊት መፈጸም እና አለመፈጸም ወይም የአንድን ጉዳይ ድምዳሜ ትክክለኝነት በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው በመጠቀም የተረዱትን ነገር በአካል ወንጀልን ለሚመረምር አካል ወይም ለፍርድ ቤት በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር የሚገልጹበት መንገድ ነው፡፡ በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው ስንል በአይናቸው የተመለከቱትን፣ በጆሯቸው የሰሙትን፣ በምላሳቸው የቀመሱትን፣ በአፍንጫቸው ያሸተቱትን፣ በቆዳቸው የነኩትን እና ስሜት የሰጣቸውን ነገር ማለት ነው፡፡ ከላይ እንደጠቀስነው የምስክርነት ማስረጃ በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር ሊደረግ የሚገባ ቢሆንም ምስክሩ መናገር የተሳነው ወይም የማይችል ከሆነ ከላይ በጠቀስነው ሁኔታ ያወቀውን መረጃ በምልክት ሊገልጽ እና ገለጻው የምልክት ቋንቋን በሚያውቅ ሰው ለፍርድ ቤቱ በንግግር ሊተረጎም ይችላል፡፡ምስክሩ ለፍርድ ቤቱ የሚገልጸውን ጉዳይ በቀጥታ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል(በቀጣዩ ክፍል ይብራል)፡፡ለምሳሌ በ ንብረትነቱ የ ለ የሆነውን ተንቀሳቃሽ ስልክ ከ ለ ኪስ ውስጥ ሲወስድ(አውጥቶ ሲወስድ) ተመልክቻለው ቢል ወይም ተ ለ የተባለውን ሰው እገድልሃው ብሎ ሲዝትበት ሰምቻለው ሲል ቃሉን ቢሰጥ ወይም ሟች አስክሬኑ በተገኘበት ክፍል አከባቢ ከሁለት ቀናት ቀደም ብሎ ጀምሮ የሞተ እንስሳ ጠረን የሸተተው መሆኑን ሊገልጽ ይችላል ይህ ግለሰቡ በቀጥታ ያገኘው መረጃ ነው፡፡ በበሌላ በኩል ፍሬ ነገሩን እራሱ በቀጥታ ሰምቶት ወይም ተመልክቶት ሳይሆን ከሌላ ሰው ሰምቶ መሆኑን ወይም ድርጊቱ ከመፈጸሙም በፊት ሆነ በኋላ ከፍሬ ነገሩ ጋር ተያያዥነት ስላለው አንድ ጉዳይ በመግለጽ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ለምሳሌ ሟች ነብሱ ከስጋው ከመላቀቋ በፊት ስደርስ ሸ ነው የወጋኝ ብሎ እያቃተተ ሲናገር ሰምቻለው ቢል ወይም ለ ከሞተበት ጊዜ ከድቂቃዎች ቀደም ብሎ የደም እንጥብጣቢ ያለበት ሸሚዝ የለበሰ ሰው በአጠገቤ እየሮጠ አልፏል ቢል ይህ የምስክርነት ማስረጃ አካባቢያዊ ማስረጃ ነው፡፡ ለ.የሰነድ ማስረጃ(document evidence) የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከቃሉም እንደምንረዳው በላዩ ላይ ማንኛውም አይነት ጽሁፍ፣ምልክት፣ ስዕል ያለበት ወረቀት በአጠቃላይ በጽሁፍ የተገለጹ ማናቸውም ማስረጃዎች ወይም ድምጽ እና/ወይም  ምስል የተቀረጸበት ነገር ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ  በጽሁፍ የተደረጉ ውሎች፣ የህክምና እና ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ በጽሁፍ የቀረቡ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ ስዕሎች፣ ቻርቶች፣ የኦዲት ሪፖርቶች፣ የቴፕ እና የቪዲዮ ቅጂዎች፣ ሀሰተኛ የምስክር ወረቀቶች እና የመሳሰለት የሰነድ ማስረጃ መገለጫዎች ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች የወንጀሉን ፍሬ ነገር ለማስዳት ይችላሉ፡፡ ወንጀሉ የተፈጸመው ሰነዶቹን በማቅረብ ሲሆን(ለምሳሌ-ሀሰተኛ የአሽከርካሪነት ብቃት ማረጋገጫ)፣ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በካሜራ እይታ ውስጥ ሆኖ የነበረ እንደሆነ፣ ድርጊቱ ከተፈጸመ በኋላም በድርጊቱ ምክንያት የደረሰን የጉዳት መጠን እና አይነት(ለምሳሌ-አካል ጉዳት) ለመለየት እንዲሁም  ጉዳቱ ሊደርስ የቻለበትን ምክንያት(ለምሳሌ- እሳት ቃጠሎ) ሊያስረዳ የሚችል የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ የጽሁፍ መግለጫ ሁሉ የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ ሐ.ገላጭ ማስረጃ  (demonstrative evidence) እነኚ ማስረጃዎች በችሎት ክርክር ወቅት ከሳሽ እና ተከሳሽ ፍርድ ቤት ተመልክቶ  ግምት እንዲወስድበት  የሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ተከሳሹ የወንጀል ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የተጠቀመበት መሳርያ፣ በፈጸመው ወንጀል ምክንያት በእጁ ወይም በሶስተኛ ወገን እጅ የተገኙ ንብረቶች በዚህ የማስረጃ አይነት ስር የሚወድቁ ናቸው፡፡ በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት በሚቀርቡ ጊዜ ፍርድ ቤቱ በትክክልም በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሰውን ወይም በክርክሩ የተያዘውን ጭብጥ ወይም ሊያዝ የሚገባውን መደምደሚያ ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይረዳዋል፡፡ለአብነትም የቀረበው ገላጭ ማስረጃ እውነትም  ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የሚያስችል ነው ወይስ አይደለም  ወይም በተከሳሹ ተወሰደ የተባለው እቃ በሸክም ከቦታ ወደ ቦታ ሊጓጓዝ ይችላል ወይስ አይችልም የሚለውን ጉዳይ ለመለየት ጉልህ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡ … Continue reading =======በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ=========

Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases


Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases =======. Education for Consciousness. ========= BY: Mr. S.M  JUDGE   /FED/F/I/COURT of ETHIOPIA The main purpose of criminal law is to keep the public safe. Thus, in the course of their daily lives, people have a constitutional right to respect and refrain from violating the rights of others. However, if they violate this obligation, they may violate the … Continue reading Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases

1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure.


1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure. Under our current Criminal Procedure Code Rule 63, a person loses his right to bail if he has been charged with a crime punishable by more than 15 years and the injured person is expected to die or die. Although there is … Continue reading 1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure.

RULE OF LAW


======== Rule of Law ========== What is the principle of the rule of law, based on the knowledge and experience of many scholars? He presented a number of theoretical analyzes regarding its content and benefits. In our country, fathers and mothers express the concept of the rule of law in one way or another, based on the truth and experience of their hearts. … Continue reading RULE OF LAW

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